Communities & Sociology | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Alphonse Verville

    Alphonse Verville, plumber, labourist, socialist, MP, president of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada (b at Côte-St-Paul [Montréal], Canada E 28 Oct 1864; d at Montréal 20 June 1930).

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    Alphonso Davies

    Alphonso Boyle Davies, soccer player (born 2 November 2000 in Buduburam, Ghana). Alphonso Davies is one of the world’s most promising young soccer stars. The youngest player ever on Team Canada, he was named the Canadian Men’s Player of the Year in 2018 and 2020. After being named an MLS All-Star and the Player of the Year with Vancouver Whitecaps FC in 2018, he signed a six-year contract with FC Bayern Munich of the Bundesliga in 2019. He was named the Bundesliga Rookie of the Season in 2019–20 and became the first Canadian men’s international to play on a team that won the Champions League. In 2020, he received the Lionel Conacher Award as Canada’s top male athlete and was a co-winner, with football player Laurent Duvernay-Tardif, of the Lou Marsh Trophy (now the Northern Star Award) as Canada’s athlete of the year.

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    Amanda Todd Case

    Amanda Todd was a 15-year-old high school student who committed suicide on 10 October 2012 after being cyberbullied and sexually extorted. A month before her death, she posted a self-made video on YouTube. She used a series of flashcards to tell her story of online sexual exploitation, and the emotional distress and verbal and physical abuse that followed her in real life. Todd’s video went viral, drawing national and international media attention. It sparked an official police investigation into her suicide. This led to the arrest of a Dutch man on extortion and child pornography charges. It also led the governments of British Columbia and Nova Scotia to pass anti-cyberbullying laws. A federal law that would amend the Criminal Code and the Canadian Human Rights Act was tabled in February 2024.

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    Any act of migration is an adventure and the adventuring spirit has at times characterized even the North American migrant. The interpenetration of the Canadian and American peoples has been such that no Canadian can have escaped its influence.

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    Amérique française

    Amérique française, magazine founded 1941 by former Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf students led by Pierre Baillargeon, following Collège publications by François Hertel and his colleagues. The magazine accurately reflected the artistic ideals of a certain Québec intellectual elite.

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    The Amish, a branch of the Mennonite Church, was formed in Alsace in 1693 under the leadership of Jakob Amman. The Amish were distinguished from other Mennonite congregations by extremely conservative dress and the shunning of technological advances and of "the world" in general.

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    Anabaptists, religious and social dissenters in 16th-century Europe.

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    Anderson Abbott

    Anderson Ruffin Abbott, doctor, surgeon (born 7 April 1837 in Toronto, Upper Canada; died 29 December 1913 in Toronto, ON). Abbott was the first Canadian-born Black person to graduate from medical school. He served the Union army as a civilian surgeon during the American Civil War.

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    Andrew Wiggins

    Andrew Christian Wiggins (born 23 February 1995 in Toronto, ON). Andrew Wiggins is a Canadian professional basketball player with the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Raised in Vaughan, Ontario, Wiggins first rose to fame as the world’s top-ranked high school basketball player and was a second-team All-American in college. In 2014, he became the second Canadian to be selected first overall in the NBA draft. He is the first Canadian player to be named the NBA’s Rookie of the Year and the first to score more than 40 points in a game. Wiggins also helped Canada secure three bronze medals in international competition. He is the highest-paid Canadian athlete of all time.    

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    Angela Chalmers

    Angela Frances Chalmers, world-class distance runner (born 6 September 1963 in Brandon, MB). Angela Chalmers is one of the most accomplished Indigenous athletes in Canada. She won three gold medals in total at the Commonwealth Games in 1990 and 1994. An advocate for Indigenous issues, Chalmers has made efforts to connect with and inspire Indigenous youth from across Canada. Among many honours and awards, Chalmers was inducted into Athletics Canada Hall of Fame in 2019 and Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame in 2024.

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    Angela Sidney (Stóow Ch’óonehte’ Máa)

    Angela Sidney (née Johns), (Stóow Ch’óonehte’ Máa), CM, Elder, storyteller, author (born 4 January 1902 near Carcross, YT; died 17 July 1991 in Whitehorse, YT). Of Tagish and Tlingit descent, Sidney was one of the last fluent speakers of the Tagish language. A storyteller, Sidney recorded and preserved the stories, traditions, languages, place names and genealogies of her people. She was the first Indigenous woman from Yukon to be appointed to the Order of Canada.

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    In Canada, the word anglophone can refer to someone whose first language is English. It may be the language they most often use to speak, read, write and think; moreover, they might use English at home the most. Being anglophone can also simply mean being able to speak the language fluently. According to the 2016 census, around 29.97 million Canadians, or 86.2 per cent of the population, declared being able to speak English.

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    Angus Bernard MacEachern

    Angus Bernard MacEachern, Roman Catholic bishop of Charlottetown (b at Kinlochmoidart, Scot 8 Feb 1759; d at Canavoy, PEI 22 Apr 1835). In a missionary career spanning 5 decades, MacEachern firmly rooted Catholicism in pioneer Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick.

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    Anishinaabe (other variants include Anishinabe, Anicinape, Nishnaabe, Neshnabé and Anishinabek) refers to a group of culturally and linguistically related First Nations that live in both Canada and the United States, concentrated around the Great Lakes. The Anishinaabeg (plural form of Anishinaabe) live from the Ottawa River Valley west across Northern Ontario and to the plains of Saskatchewan south to the northeast corner of North Dakota, northern Minnesota and Michigan, as well as the northern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie. The Ojibwe, Chippewa, Odawa, Potawatomi, Algonquin, Saulteaux, Nipissing and Mississauga First Nations are Anishinaabeg. Some Oji-Cree First Nations and Métis also include themselves within this cultural-linguistic grouping. ( See also Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

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    Anna Brownell Jameson

    Anna Brownell Jameson, née Murphy, author, artist, art historian and feminist (born 19 May 1794 in Dublin, Ireland; died 17 March 1860 in London, United Kingdom). Anna Jameson spent the winter and spring of 1836–37 in Toronto with her husband, Robert Sympson Jameson, attorney general of Upper Canada. She travelled extensively in southern Ontario during the summer of 1837, recording her impressions through her sketches, watercolours and writing in Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada (1838).

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