History/Historical Figures | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Black History in Canada until 1900

    Black people have lived in Canada since the beginnings of transatlantic settlement. Although historically very few arrived directly from their ancestral homeland in Africa, the term "African Canadian" is used to identify all descendants of Africa regardless of their place of birth. “Black Canadian” is also used as a more general term. The earliest arrivals were enslaved people brought from New England or the West Indies. Between 1763 and 1900, most Black migrants to Canada were fleeing enslavement in the US. (See also Black Enslavement in Canada.) See also Black History in Canada: 1900–1960 and Black History in Canada: 1960 to Present.

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  • Editorial

    Editorial: The Arrival of Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated. “Freedom and a Farm.” The promise was exciting to the thousands of African Americans, most seeking to escape enslavement, who fought in British regiments during the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). Following the war, they joined tens of thousands of Loyalists — American refugees who had sided with the British. Between 80,000 and 100,000 Loyalists eventually fled the United States. About half came to British North America. The main waves arrived in 1783 and 1784. The territory that now includes the Maritime provinces became home to more than 30,000 Loyalists. Most of coastal Nova Scotia received Loyalist settlers, as did Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island (then called St. John’s Island).

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  • Article

    Blair Fraser

    Blair Fraser, journalist (b at Sydney, NS 17 Apr 1909; d on the Petawawa R, Ont 12 May 1968). Fraser was one of the leading journalists of the 1950s and 1960s, and as Ottawa editor of Maclean's from 1943-60 he had a unique opportunity to influence a national audience.

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  • Article


    Bleus, see Parti bleu.

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  • Macleans

    Book Review: The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake

    This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on July 28, 2003. Partner content is not updated.

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  • Article

    Brother XII (Edward Arthur Wilson)

    Brother XII (Brother Twelve) was one of Canada’s most notorious cult leaders. A mystic figure who dreamed of transforming humanity, he left behind a failed utopia and deep mystery.

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  • Article

    Bunkhouse Men

    Partly as a result of this, but primarily because jobs moved around, bunkhouse men were highly mobile, tramping within regions and sometimes across the country to find work. They were also often at the forefront of labour radicalism.

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  • Article

    Calixa Lavallée

    Callixte Lavallée, composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, administrator, soldier (born 28 December 1842 in Verchères, Canada East; died 21 January 1891 in Boston, Massachusetts). A pioneer in music both in Canada and the United States, Calixa Lavallée was considered one of the “national glories” of Quebec. He is best known for composing the music for “O Canada” and was twice president of the Académie de musique de Québec. Despite this vaunted stature, he spent much of his life outside Canada, served with the Union Army during the American Civil War and called for Canada to be annexed by the United States. The Prix de musique Calixa-Lavallée, awarded by the St-Jean-Baptiste Society of Montreal for outstanding contributions to the music of Quebec, is named in his honour.

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  • Article

    Camilla, Queen Consort

    Camilla, Queen Consort, formerly Duchess of Cornwall (born 17 July 1947 in London, United Kingdom), is the second wife of King Charles III, monarch of Canada, the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth Realms. She has undertaken five official tours of Canada with the then Prince of Wales, including celebrations for the 150th anniversary of Confederation in 2017 and Queen Elizabeth II’s Platinum Jubilee in 2022.

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  • Article

    Campbell Mellis Douglas

    Campbell Mellis Douglas, surgeon, soldier, writer, inventor and sportsman (b at Grosse Ile, Qué 5 Aug 1840; d at Wells, Somerset, Eng 31 Dec 1909).

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  • Article

    Canada Committee

    Canada Committee, a British parliamentary committee established 2 May 1828 to settle political disputes which were paralysing representative government in Lower Canada and creating difficulties in Upper Canada.

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  • Article

    Canada Company

    Canada Company, brainchild of John GALT, established in late 1824 and chartered in 1825 as a land and COLONIZATION COMPANY in Upper Canada. In 1826 the company purchased from the government about 2.5 million acres (1 million ha) of land for $295 000.

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  • Article

    Canada First

    Canada First, nationalist movement founded 1868 by Ontarians George Denison, Henry Morgan, Charles Mair and William Foster and by Robert Grant Haliburton, a Nova Scotian living in Ottawa.

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  • Article

    Canada’s Century: Sir Wilfrid Laurier’s Bold Prediction

    “Let me tell you, my fellow countrymen, that all the signs point this way, that the 20th century shall be the century of Canada and Canadian development.… For the next 100 years, Canada shall be the star towards which all men who love progress and freedom shall come.” — Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier speaking at Toronto’s Massey Hall on 14 October 1904.

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  • Editorial

    Cupids, Newfoundland: Canada's First English Settlement

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated. "Thomas Willoughby, thou art a ne'er-do-well! Get thee to Cupers Cove and reform thyself." Young Willoughby, 19, may not have heard exactly those words, but he was sent to Cupers Cove, Newfoundland in 1612 to "reform himself."

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