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Article

92 Resolutions

Drafted in January 1834 by Louis-Joseph Papineau, leader of the Parti patriote, and Augustin-Norbert Morin, the 92 Resolutions were a list of grievances and demands made by the Parti patriote with regards to the state of the colonial political system. They were drafted following a long political struggle against the governor general and Château Clique and the Patriotes’ inability to produce any significant reforms. The document critiqued the division of authority in the colony and demanded a government that was responsible to the Legislative Assembly. The imperial government responded with the Russell Resolutions, which rejected their demands, preparing the way for the Canadian Rebellion.

Article

A Dish with One Spoon

The term a dish with one spoon refers to a concept developed by the Indigenous peoples of the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America. It was used to describe how land can be shared to the mutual benefit of all its inhabitants. According to the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), the concept originated many hundreds of years ago and contributed greatly to the creation of the “Great League of Peace” — the Iroquois Confederacy made up of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, and Mohawk nations. The Anishinaabeg (the Ojibwe, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississauga, Saulteaux and Algonquin nations) refer to “a dish with one spoon” or “our dish” as “Gdoo – naaganinaa.”

Editorial

A Place to Happen

It has been said that Canadians don’t tell our own stories or celebrate our own myths. Our history is full of epics considered “too small to be tragic,” as The Tragically Hip’s Gord Downie once sang.

Article

A. Allison Dysart

A. Allison Dysart, lawyer, politician, judge, premier of New Brunswick (b at Cocagne, NB 22 Mar 1880; d at Moncton, NB 8 Dec 1962). Educated at Ontario Agricultural Coll, St Joseph's University and Dalhousie, he practised law in Bouctouche.

Article

A. Y. Jackson

Alexander Young Jackson, CC, painter (born 3 October 1882 in Montréal, QC; died 5 April 1974 in Kleinburg, ON). A Companion of the Order of Canada and recipient of a medal for lifetime achievement from the Royal Canadian Academy, A.Y. Jackson was a leading member of the Group of Seven and helped to remake the visual image of Canada.

Article

A.J.M. Smith

Arthur James Marshall Smith, poet, critic, anthologist (b at Montréal 8 Nov 1902; d at East Lansing, Mich 21 Nov 1980). A.J.M. Smith was educated at McGill University and the University of Edinburgh.

Article

A.M. Klein

Abraham Moses Klein, poet, writer (b at Ratno, Ukraine 14 Feb 1909; d at Montréal 20 Aug 1972).

Article

A.S. Vogt

A.S. (Augustus Stephen) Vogt. Choir conductor, administrator, educator, organist, pianist, b Washington, near Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont, of German and Swiss parents, 14 Aug 1861, d Toronto 17 Sep 1926; FRCO, honorary D MUS (Toronto) 1906.

Article

Aaron Allan Edson

   Aaron Allan Edson, landscape painter (b at Standbridge, Qué 18 Dec 1846; d at Glen-Sutton, Qué 1 May 1888). His first teacher (around 1863) was likely Robert Duncanson, an American artist living in Montréal. He later studied in London, England.

Article

Aaron Roland Mosher

Aaron Roland Mosher, trade unionist (b in Halifax County, NS 10 May 1881; d at Ottawa 26 Sept 1959). In 1907 Mosher led Halifax freight-shed employees on strike.

Article

Aba Bayefsky

Aba Bayefsky, artist, teacher (b Toronto 7 Apr 1923; d Toronto 5 May 2001). Bayefsky studied at Central Technical School in Toronto from 1937 to 1942. The following year he enlisted in the RCAF and was commissioned as an Official War Artist in 1944.

Article

Abe Jeffrey Levine (Primary Source)

"... once the screeching stopped, and that was agonizing, because you figured you’d be blowing up any, any second. And then blissful silence. That was that."

See below for Mr. Levine's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Abenaki

Abenaki (also referred to as Wobanaki or Wabanaki) take their name from a word in their own language meaning “dawn-land people” or “people from the east.” Their traditional lands included parts of southeastern Quebec, western Maine and northern New England. As of 2021, the total registered population of Abenaki people on the Wôlinak and Odanak reserves in Quebec is 469 and 2,747, respectively.

Article

Abigail Becker

During a vicious storm on 24 Nov 1854, the overloaded schooner Conductor foundered on a nearby sandbar. The captain and crew clung to the frozen rigging all night, not daring to enter the raging surf.

Article

Abigail Hoffman

Abigail Hoffman, track and field athlete, sport administrator (b at Toronto 11 Feb 1947). As a 9-year-old hockey player, she unwittingly caused controversy by entering a male-dominated sport; she later joined the Toronto Olympic Club and competed at international events.

Article

Aboriginal Healing Foundation

The Aboriginal Healing Foundation was an Indigenous-led non-profit organization that operated from 1998 to 2014. It was created after the federal government committed $350 million in 1998 to create a “Healing Strategy” to address the legacy of residential schools. The Foundation’s purpose was to foster and support community-based healing initiatives by conducting research and providing funding to various related projects.

Article

Aboriginal Justice Inquiry

The Government of Manitoba created the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry in April 1988. The inquiry was formed in response to the separate murders of two Indigenous people, Helen Betty Osborne and John Joseph Harper. The commissioners of the inquiry investigated and made recommendations to the provincial government on the relationship between the justice system and Indigenous people. The inquiry’s 1991 report found that there was systemic racism within Manitoba’s criminal justice system. While some of the inquiry’s recommendations to reform the justice system were implemented, others were not. Notably, the recommendations to protect Indigenous women and girls from harm in the provincial justice system have not been fully realized.

Article

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN)

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) is the world’s first Indigenous national broadcaster dedicated to Indigenous programming. First broadcast on 1 September 1999 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, APTN provides various content, including news, dramas and documentaries. Aimed at diverse audiences, APTN offers programming in Indigenous languages, English and French. It broadcasts into more than 11 million Canadian households and businesses, a significant portion of which are located in remote areas. APTN mainly generates revenue for operations through subscriber fees, advertising sales and partnerships.