Geographical features | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Fraser River

    The Fraser River is the longest river in British Columbia, stretching 1,375 km. It begins on the western side of the Rocky Mountains at Mount Robson Provincial Park, and ends in the Strait of Georgia at Vancouver. Named for explorer Simon Fraser, the river was a transportation route and source of food for the Indigenous people of the region long before Fraser travelled its waters. In 1858, gold was discovered on sandbars south of Yale, setting off the Fraser River Gold rush.

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  • Article

    Fraser River Canyon

    The Fraser River Canyon was formed during the Miocene period (22.9-5.33 million years ago) when the river cut down into the uplifting southern part of the Interior Plateau of British Columbia. The canyon characteristics of this

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  • Article

    Fraser River Lowland

    The Fraser River Lowland is a triangular area in southwestern British Columbia. The eastern apex of the triangle is at Hope, about 160 km inland from the Strait of Georgia. From here, the lowland broadens to the west to a width of about 50 km. The international boundary between British Columbia and Washington State crosses the southwestern part of the lowland. The Coast Mountains form the northern boundary of the delta-lowland. The Fraser River Lowland is the largest area of level land with suitable agricultural soils in coastal British Columbia.

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  • Article

    French River

    The French River, 290 km long (to head of Sturgeon River), rises from Lake Nipissing in northeastern Ontario and flows 110 km west towards Georgian Bay.

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  • Article

    French Shore

    The French Shore was an area of coastal Newfoundland where French fishermen enjoyed treaty rights granted by the British from 1713 to 1904.

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  • Article

    Frobisher Bay

    Iqaluit is near a traditional South Baffin Inuit fishing camp, where a summer camp was established each year to fish (photo by Barbara Brundege and Eugene Fisher).\r\n Frobisher Bay is a deep indentation in the extreme southeast coastline of BAFFIN ISLAND, over 230 km long and 40 km wide at the mouth, narrowing to 20 km towards its head. The configuration of the bay has a funnelling effect, so that the harbour of the city...

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  • Article

    Funk Island

    Funk Island, 25 ha, is a flat, 15 m high, wedge-shaped granite island 800 m by 400 m lying 60 km off Newfoundland's northeast coast, east of FOGO ISLAND. The origin of the name is unknown, though it may have been inspired by the smell of the guano that covers much of the island.

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  • Article

    Fury and Hecla Strait

    Fury and Hecla Strait is located at the northern end of Foxe Basin, connecting the basin with the Gulf of Boothia, and separating Melville Peninsula on the mainland and Baffin Island to the north.

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  • Article

    Galiano Island

    Galiano Island, 5787 ha, is one of BC's GULF ISLANDS, named for Spanish navy commander Dionisio Alcalá-Galiano, who explored the area in 1792. It has the driest climate of the islands.

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  • Article

    Gander River

    Gander River, 175 km long, drainage basin 6400 km2, is the principal river of northeast Newfoundland, emptying into Gander Bay. Named for its abundant geese, it rises in the central plateau and eventually falls 427 m to the Atlantic.

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  • Article

    Geological Regions (Plain-Language Summary)

    Geology is the study of what the Earth is made of and how it has changed over time. There are six geological regions in Canada. These regions are the Canadian Shield, the Interior Platform, the Appalachian Orogen, the Innuitian Orogen, the Cordillera and Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, and the Eastern Continental Margin. This article is a plain-language summary of the geological regions of Canada. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see the full-length entry, Geological Regions.

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  • Article

    George River

    George River, 560 km long, in northern Québec, drains N into the E side of Ungava Bay. Its southern and eastern divides, along with those of tributary rivers Ford and De Pas, extend along much of the Québec-Newfoundland and Labrador border.

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  • Article

    Georges Bank

    Georges Bank is a large submarine bank (250 km by 150 km) at the edge of the Atlantic continental shelf between Cape Cod and Nova Scotia. Typical water depths are 50-80 m, but in some areas the water shoals to 10 m and less.

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  • Article

    Georgian Bay

    Georgian Bay is the northeast arm of Lake Huron in southcentral Ontario. It is shielded from the lake by the limestone spine of the Niagara Escarpment, which extends in a great arc northwest up the Bruce Peninsula. The bay is fed from Lake Superior via the North Channel, between Manitoulin Island and the north shore, and independently by the Mississagi, Spanish, French, Magnetawan, Muskoka, Severn and Nottawasaga rivers. The strait between the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island is called Main Channel (25 km wide).

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  • Article

    Gold River

    Gold River, BC, incorporated as a village in 1972, population 1267 (2011c), 1362 (2006c). The Village of Gold River is located approximately midpoint on the west coast of VANCOUVER ISLAND at the head of Muchalat Inlet in NOOTKA SOUND.

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