History | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Canadian Museums Association

    The Canadian Museums Association is the national association for museums and related institutions. It was begun on 29 May 1947, when founding president H.O.

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  • Article

    Music at the Canadian National Exhibition

    From the early 1920s until the CNE Music Dept was established, the Canadian Bureau for the Advancement of Music helped to organize CNE music events, which were of three main kinds: 1/entertainment, 2/exhibition, and 3/competition.

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  • Article

    Canadian Painting in the 19th Century

    Prior to the advent of distinctively Canadian modernists like Tom Thomson, members of the Group of Seven, Emily Carr and David Milne in the 20th century, Canadian painting closely followed conventional, academic European models and tastes.

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  • Article

    Canadian Studies

    The term "Canadian studies" refers to a distinctive interdisciplinary approach to research and teaching about Canada. It has roots in the evolution of Canadian nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s (see also Canadian Identity).

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  • Article

    Cape Breton Strikes 1920s

    The CAPE BRETON labour wars of the early 1920s represented an intense local episode of class conflict similar to the WINNIPEG GENERAL STRIKE (1919).

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Cape Breton Strikes 1920s
  • Article

    Capitalism in Canada

    Capitalism is an economic system in which private owners control a country’s trade and business sector for their personal profit. It contrasts with communism, in which property effectively belongs to the state (see also Marxism). Canada has a “mixed” economy, positioned between these extremes. The three levels of government decide how to allocate much of the country’s wealth through taxing and spending.

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  • Article

    Capitulation of Montreal 1760

    The Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the capitulation of Quebec City in 1759 made the strategic situation of New France desperate. Despite a victory at the Battle of Sainte-Foy, the French forces found themselves isolated in Montreal by the British. The French commander, François-Gaston de Lévis, wanted to continue the fight. However, to avoid a pointless loss of life, the Governor of New France, Pierre-Rigaud de Vaudreuil, decided to surrender the city. With the capitulation of Montreal to the British forces on 8 September 1760, Great Britain completed its conquest of New France.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/Seven_Years_War_Map.jpg Capitulation of Montreal 1760
  • Article

    Cariboo Gold Rush

    The Cariboo Gold Rush (1861–67) is British Columbia’s most famous gold rush.

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  • Article

    Carignan-Salières Regiment

    The Carignan-Salières Regiment was a regiment of French troops who were sent to New France from 1665 to 1667 to fight the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). These professional soldiers, who had little experience with fighting in the woods, invaded the lands of the Haudenosaunee but did not succeed in defeating them. Nevertheless, the French show of force led to a peace accord in 1667. Though most of the French soldiers then went home, some stayed, married and settled in New France. Many of them married Filles du Roy and now have many descendants. Quebec municipalities such as Berthier, Chambly and Verchères still bear the names of officers of this regiment.

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  • Article

    Caroline Affair

    After the failed Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada, its leader, William Lyon Mackenzie, retreated to Navy Island, in the Niagara River, accompanied by some 200 followers. The Caroline, an American ship based at Fort Schlosser in New York State, was chartered to bring supplies to the rebels. On 29 December 1837, a force of the Upper Canada militia led by Commander Andrew Drew of the Royal Navy found the Caroline moored at Schlosser. In the quick skirmish that followed, an American was killed. The Caroline, set on fire and adrift, capsized before reaching the falls and sank. The incident aggravated the already tense relationship between the United Kingdom and the United States.

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  • Article

    Carry On

    'Carry On'. Patriotic song popular during World War II. The music was written by Ernest Dainty as part of the orchestral accompaniment to the Canadian silent feature film Carry On Sergeant. Extracted from the score, the tune was given lyrics by Gordon V.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Carry On
  • Article

    Castle Frank

    Castle Frank was a concession of land in the colonial town of York, purchased by John Graves Simcoe in the name of his son, Francis, in 1793. A log house later built on the site also bore the same name. Today the name Castle Frank is preserved as a street, a brook and a station on Toronto’s transit line.

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  • Article

    Champlain Society

    The Champlain Society was founded 1905 in Toronto by Sir Edmund Walker to increase public awareness of, and accessibility to, Canada's rich store of historical records. Membership, limited at first to 250, is now approximately 800.

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  • Article

    Chanak Affair

    The 1922 Chanak Affair was Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King’s first major foreign policy test. Turkish forces were threatening British troops stationed in Turkey after the First World War. King declined to automatically provide Canada’s military support to Britain. It was another step on the path to Canada’s independence in world affairs.

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  • Editorial

    Editorial: The Charlottetown Conference of 1864 and the Persuasive Power of Champagne

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated. On Monday, 29 August 1864, eight of 12 cabinet members from the government of the Province of Canada boarded the steamer Queen Victoria in Quebec City. They had heard that representatives of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and PEI were meeting in Charlottetown to discuss a union of the Maritime colonies. (See Charlottetown Conference.) The Canadian officials hoped to crash the party. Their government was gripped in deadlock. Even old enemies such as John A. Macdonald and George Brown agreed that a new political arrangement was needed. As the Queen Victoria made its way slowly down the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Canadians frantically worked on their pitch.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Editorial: The Charlottetown Conference of 1864 and the Persuasive Power of Champagne