History | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)

    The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was founded in Calgary in 1932. It was a political coalition of progressive, socialist and labour groups. It sought economic reform to help Canadians affected by the Great Depression. The party governed Saskatchewan under Premier Tommy Douglas, who went on to be the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party (NDP). The CCF merged with the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) to form the NDP in 1961. Although the CCF never held power nationally, the adoption of many of its ideas by ruling parties contributed greatly to the development of the Canadian welfare state.

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  • Article

    Coal Mining

    A carbonaceous fossil fuel, coal has a long history as the key energy source in the transition to industrialization, beginning in 17th-century Europe.

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    Coal Mining Disasters

    Coal mining involves deep workings, soft rock, dust, poisonous and flammable gases, explosives, machinery, transport and ventilation systems, and, in early times, open-flame lamps. Each has been a factor in the many Canadian coal mine tragedies, the worst of which are detailed here.

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  • Article

    Canada and the Cold War

    The Cold War refers to the period between the end of the Second World War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. During this time, the world was largely divided into two ideological camps — the United States-led capitalist “West” and the Soviet-dominated communist “East.” Canada aligned with the West. Its government structure, politics, society and popular perspectives matched those in the US, Britain, and other democratic countries. The global US-Soviet struggle took many different forms and touched many areas. It never became “hot” through direct military confrontation between the two main antagonists.

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  • Article

    Collapse of the Peace River Bridge

    ​The spectacular suspension bridge across the Peace River south of Fort St. John, British Columbia, was opened in the summer of 1943, replacing a ferry crossing on the Alaska Highway.

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    Colonial Office

    Colonial Office, a department established by the British government to administer its colonial possessions, including British North America.

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    Colonialism in Canada

    Colonialism is the process through which a foreign people establish control over a territory and, if applicable, its Indigenous peoples. Control is established through various means, including political or economic legislation directed at Indigenous peoples or their lands, foreign settlement, and assimilation of Indigenous peoples into the colonizer’s culture. While colonialism in different forms is a defining mark of the history of many countries, colonialism in Canada began in earnest with French settlement at Quebec in 1608. The history of the second colonial power to influence Canada, the British, began in 1670 when the Crown issued a Royal Charter to the Hudson’s Bay Company.

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    Colored Hockey League

    The Colored Hockey League of the Maritimes (CHL) was an all-Black men’s hockey league. It was organized by Black Baptists and Black intellectuals and was founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1895. It was defunct during and after the First World War, reformed in 1921 and then fell apart during the Depression in the 1930s. Play was known to be fast, physical and innovative. The league was designed to attract young Black men to Sunday worship with the promise of a hockey game between rival churches after the services. Later, with the influence of the Black Nationalism Movement — and with rising interest in the sport of hockey — the league came to be seen as a potential driving force for the equality of Black Canadians. Canada Post issued a commemorative stamp in honour of the league in January 2020.

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  • Article

    Communauté des biens

    Communauté des biens (community of property), term used in the legal codes of NEW FRANCE and Québec to describe the pooled assets of husband and wife. It began as part of the Coutume de Paris, introduced about 1640 and the sole legal code of the colony after 1664.

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    Communauté des habitants

    Communauté des habitants (Compagnie des habitants), colonial merchants who held the fur trade monopoly in New France 1645-63.

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    Compact Theory of Confederation

    Compact Theory of Confederation, see CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Compact Theory of Confederation
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    Company of One Hundred Associates

    The Company of New France, or Company of One Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent-Associés) as it was more commonly known, was formed in France in 1627. Its purpose was to increase New France’s population while enjoying a monopoly on almost all colonial trade. It took bold steps but suffered many setbacks. The company folded in 1663. It earned little return on its investment, though it helped establish New France as a viable colony.

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  • Article

    Compagnie des Indes occidentales

    The Compagnie des Indes occidentales was a trading company that drove France’s colonial economy from 1664 to 1674. Its name translates to West Indies Company. King Louis XIV gave the company exclusive rights to trade and govern in all French colonies. Its territory extended from the Americas to the Caribbean and Western Africa. In addition to natural resources such as furs and sugar, the Compagnie traded enslaved people. This company is not to be confused with the French trading company founded by John Law and renamed Compagnie des Indes in 1719.

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    Compagnie du Nord

    Compagnie du Nord (Compagnie de la Baie du Nord), fd 1682 by Canadian merchants, led by Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye, to trade into Hudson Bay by sea.

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    Company Towns

    Company towns, important in Canada's capital formation and industrialization, urban development, and trade-union movement.

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