Politics & Law | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Act of Union

    The Act of Union was passed by the British Parliament in July 1840. It was proclaimed on 10 February 1841 in Montreal. It created the Province of Canada by uniting the colonies of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East(formerly Lower Canada) into one government. (See also: Act of Union: Timeline; Act of Union: Editorial.)

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  • Article

    Act of Union (Plain-Language Summary)

    The Act of Union was passed by the British Parliament in July 1840. It became law on 10 February 1841. It merged Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada) into the Province of Canada (1841–67). The Act was based on the findings of the Durham Report. It was presented by Lord Durham in 1839. The Act sought to assimilate French Canadians, limit the power of the Family Compact and promote economic growth. This article is a plain-language summary of the Act of Union. If you would like to read about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry: Act of Union.

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  • Article

    Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ)

    The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) was founded in 1994 by parting members of the Québec Liberal Party. It formed the Official Opposition at the province’s National Assembly between March 2007 and September 2008. It merged with Coalition Avenir Québec, a new political party, in February 2012.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ)
  • Article

    Action libérale nationale

    Founded in 1934 by discontented Liberals under Paul Gouin, this third party in Québec politics quickly gained the support of radical French Canadian nationalists.

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  • Article

    Administrative Law in Canada

    Administrative law is one of three basic areas of public law dealing with the relationship between government and its citizens; the other two are constitutional law and criminal law. (See also Rule of Law.) Administrative law ensures that government actions are authorized by Parliament or by provincial legislatures, and that laws are implemented and administered in a fair and reasonable manner. Administrative law is based on the principle that government actions must (strictly speaking) be legal, and that citizens who are affected by unlawful government acts must have effective remedies. A strong administrative law system helps maintain public confidence in government authority.

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  • Article

    Administrative Tribunals in Canada

    Administrative tribunals make decisions on behalf of federal and provincial governments when it is impractical or inappropriate for the government to do so itself. Tribunals are set up by federal or provincial legislation; this is known as “empowering legislation.” Tribunals are commonly known as commissions or boards. They make decisions about a wide variety of issues, including disputes between people or between people and the government. Tribunals may also perform regulatory or licensing functions. Their decisions may be reviewed by the courts. Because they engage in fact-finding and have the power to impact personal rights, tribunals are often seen as “quasi-judicial.”

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  • Article

    Admiralty

    Admiralty (short for Board of Admiralty), a British government department which, between its inception in the early 18th century and its amalgamation into the Ministry of Defence in 1964, was responsible for the conduct of naval affairs.

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  • Macleans

    Adscam Reveals Deeper Government Mismanagement

    WHEN JUSTICE John Gomery delivers his first report on the sponsorship affair next week, reaction likely won't follow the usual script. Opposition parties typically respond to a scandal by shouting as loudly as possible that there's never been such corruption.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on October 31, 2005

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  • Article

    Advance Directives

    An advance directive (sometimes referred to as a "living will") is a legal mechanism which enables individuals to plan for their own incapacity, and specifically for the situation where decisions have to be taken with respect to their health care after they are no longer mentally capable of making (or communicating) these decisions personally.

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  • Article

    Agriculture and Food Policy

    Federal agricultural policy is intended to serve national economic and political goals as well as the interests of those directly involved in and affected by Canadian agriculture - primarily producers, food processors, distributors, retailers and consumers.

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  • Article

    Aid to (or of) the Civil Power

    Aid to (or of) the Civil Power, the calling out of military troops by the civil authorities to help maintain or restore public order.

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  • Macleans

    Air India Arrests

    This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on November 13, 2000. Partner content is not updated.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Air India Arrests
  • Macleans

    Air India Bombing Arrests

    The calls to Perviz Madon's North Vancouver home began at 9 a.m. on Friday with the first rumours. After more than 15 years, callers said, RCMP members were arresting suspects in the murder of her husband, Sam, and 328 other passengers and crew of Air India Flight 182.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on November 6, 2000

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  • Article

    Air India Flight 182 Bombing

    The bombing of an Air India flight from Toronto to Bombay on 23 June 1985 — killing all 329 people on board — remains Canada’s deadliest terrorist attack. A separate bomb blast the same day at Tokyo’s Narita Airport killed two baggage handlers. After a 15-year investigation into the largest mass murder in the country's history, two British Columbia Sikh separatists were charged with murder and conspiracy in both attacks. They were acquitted in 2005. A third accused, Inderjit Singh Reyat, was convicted of manslaughter for his role in building the two bombs.

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  • Macleans

    Air India Trial Ends in Acquittal

    This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on March 28, 2005. Partner content is not updated."IN THE EARLY morning hours of June 23, 1985, two bomb-laden suitcases detonated half a world apart," began B.C. Supreme Court Justice Ian Bruce Josephson, reading a verdict that set two men free and left hundreds more shackled to a 20-year-old tragedy that now seems beyond hope of resolution.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on March 28, 2005

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