Browse "Communities & Sociology"

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Onondaga

Onondaga, geographically at the centre of the five Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) nations, were designated "firekeepers" of the Iroquois league, serving as moderators at councils and retaining the wampum records of the confederacy.

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Ontario Schools Question

The Ontario schools question was the first major schools issue to focus on language rather than religion. In Ontario, French or French-language education remained a contentious issue for nearly a century, from 1890 to 1980, with English-speaking Catholics and Protestants aligned against French-speaking Catholics.

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Orange Order in Canada

The Orange Order was a political and religious fraternal society in Canada. From the early 19th century, members proudly defended Protestantism and the British connection while providing mutual aid. The Order had a strong influence in politics, particularly through patronage at the municipal level, and developed a reputation for sectarianism and rioting.

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Ordre de Jacques-Cartier

The Ordre de Jacques-Cartier (OJC), commonly known as “La Patente,” was a secret society founded in 1926 in Vanier (now Ottawa), Ontario, to further the religious, social and economic interests of French Canadians. At the forefront of the conflicts over language and nationalism until the 1960s, it discreetly wielded its influence by infiltrating various associations, and it mobilized its members within a strict authoritarian structure. The rise of Québécois nationalism and internal tensions led to its dissolution in 1965.

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Orkneymen

The first Orkneymen were brought out in the first decade of the 18th century, but the practice did not become regular until the 1730s. At the peak of their involvement with the HBC in 1800, Orkneymen comprised 80% of a labour force of almost 500.

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Oronhyatekha

Oronhyatekha ("burning cloud"), or Peter Martin, medical doctor (b on the Six Nations Reserve near Brantford, Canada W 10 Aug 1841; d at Savannah, Ga 3 Mar 1907).

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Orval Prophet

Orval (William) Prophet. Singer, guitarist, songwriter, b Edwards, near Ottawa, 31 Aug 1922, d there 4 Jan 1984.

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Os-Ke-Non-Ton

Os-Ke-Non-Ton (also written Oskenonton, meaning deer in the Mohawk language, also known as “Running Deer”), baritone, actor, spiritual leader (né Louie Deer c. 1888 in Caughnawaga [now Kahnawá:ke], QC; died c. 1955 in Lily Dale, NY). Os-Ke-Non-Ton was a celebrated singer and performer who showcased his culture across the globe. He also worked as a healer at a spiritual centre in Lily Dale until his death.

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Os-ke-non-ton

Os-ke-non-ton (b Louie Deer). Baritone, actor, b Caughnawaga (now Kahnawake), Que, ca 1890, d Lily Dale, NY, ca 1950. Educated in Muncey near London, Ont, in Caughnawaga, and at Parkdale Collegiate in Toronto, he first worked as a hunter and guide in the Lake of Bays district of Ontario.

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Pacheenaht

The "Pacheedaht" or "Pacheenaht" ("sea-foam-on-rocks people") take their name from the former village site of "p'aachiida" (pronounced "pah-chee-da") at the head of Port San Juan Bay on southwest Vancouver Island.

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Palaeoindian

Some discoveries at the BLUEFISH CAVES and the OLD CROW BASIN in the Yukon trace back the occupation of these two deposits at around 25 000 to 40 000 years BP, based on dates obtained from sediments and mammoth bones that have most likely been modified by humans.

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Palbinder Kaur Shergill

Palbinder Kaur Shergill, QC, judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia in New Westminster (born in Rurka Kalan, Punjab, India). Shergill spent 26 years practising law before she was appointed to the Supreme Court of British Columbia. She was the first turbaned Sikh woman to be appointed as a judge in Canada.

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Panet Family

Established in Québec City by Jean-Claude Panet (1719-78) in 1740, and in Montréal by his brother, Pierre-Méru Panet (1731-1804) in 1746, for generations the Panet family has made a remarkable contribution to Canadian legal, political, religious and above all, military life.

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Parr

Filled with animals and hunters and drawn in a distinctive, direct style, with little regard for naturalism or perspective, Parr's naive images are powerful expressions of an old man's love for a disappearing way of life.

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Pat Conroy

In 1940 when the CANADIAN CONGRESS OF LABOUR (CCL) was founded, he became its vice-president and the next year its full-time secretary-treasurer. In 1949 he helped found the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

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Patrick Lenihan

Patrick Lenihan, trade unionist (b at Kanturk, Ire 11 Apr 1903; d at Calgary 4 Mar 1981). He was a member of the Sinn Féin movement engaged in rebellious activities against British rule in Ireland. In the 1930s he organized workers, farmers and unemployed throughout Alberta.