History/Historical Figures | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    William Peyton Hubbard

    William Peyton Hubbard, politician, inventor, baker, coachman (born 27 January 1842 in Toronto, ON; died 30 April 1935 in Toronto). Hubbard was Toronto’s first Black elected official, serving as alderman (1894–1903, 1913) and controller (1898–1908), and as acting mayor periodically. A democratic reformer, he campaigned to make the city’s powerful Board of Control an elected body. Hubbard was also a leading figure in the push for public ownership of hydroelectric power, contributing to the establishment of the Toronto Hydro-Electric System.

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  • Article

    William "Tiger" Dunlop

    William "Tiger" Dunlop, army surgeon, soldier, politician, author (b at Greenock, Scotland, 19 Nov 1792; d at Côte-Saint-Paul 29 Jun 1848).

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  • Article

    William Yellowhead

    William Yellowhead (also known as Musquakie), Ojibwe Hereditary Chief (died 11 January 1864 at the Rama Reserve, Canada West). William Yellowhead was the Hereditary Chief of the Lake Simcoe Ojibwe and contributed to the creation of the Chippewa Tri-Council.

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  • Article

    Winnifred Eaton (Onoto Watanna)

    Winnifred Eaton Babcock Reeve (a.k.a. Onoto Watanna), author, screenwriter (born 21 August 1875 in Montreal, QC; died 8 April 1954 in Butte, Montana). Winnifred Eaton achieved literary fame under the pseudonym Onoto Watanna. She was the first person of Asian descent to publish a novel in the United States — Miss Numè of Japan (1899) — and to reach a mainstream audience. Her novel A Japanese Nightingale (1901) was adapted into a Broadway play and a motion picture. She also wrote screenplays for Hollywood and two novels, Cattle (1924) and His Royal Nibs (1925), about ranching life in Alberta.

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  • Article

    Wintering Partner

    A wintering partner (also "winterer") was an inland trader and shareholder, most notably in the North West Company. The wintering partner system evolved in New France, where fur merchants divided their profits with associates conducting the trade.

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    Women and the Fur Trade

    An Algonquin man declared to Jesuit missionary Paul Le Jeune in 1639: “To live among us without a wife is to live without help, without home and to be always wandering.” While the importance of having a home and wife may have been lost on the itinerant and celibate Jesuit priest, for many First Nations this quote evokes the social, economic and political advantages of marriages, especially in the context of the fur trade. Indigenous women’s labour produced and mended clothing, preserved meats, harvested maple sugar and root vegetables like turnips, trapped small game, netted fish and cultivated wild rice — all crucial survival and subsistence activities in the boreal forests, prairie parklands and northern plains of fur trade society. Through intraclan marriages (see Clan), First Nations women forged extended kin lineages, established social obligations and reciprocal ties, and negotiated for the access and use of common resources across a vast and interconnected Indigenous world. Marriages between different Indigenous villages, clans and nations shaped regional politics, fostered lateral marital alliances and created a geographically diverse and widespread kinship network throughout the Great Lakes- St. Lawrence River Basin, the Hudson Bay watershed, and the Pacific Slope (see Pacific Ocean and Canada.)

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    Women in the Klondike Gold Rush

    The Klondike Gold Rush of 1896–1899 drew about 100,000 people from around the world to the Klondike Region of Yukon. Women played a vital role in the gold rush, even though they are estimated to have made up no more than 10 per cent of Yukon’s population at the height of the stampede. While still responsible for both paid and unpaid domestic labour, women took on a variety of other roles in the Klondike, including prospecting, entrepreneurship, entertainment, sex work and nursing.

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  • Article

    Woodland Culture

     The Woodland culture comprises various cultural manifestations that took place mainly in southern Ontario and Québec between 3000 and 500 years Before Present (BP).

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    Between February 1868 and September 1870, 7 contingents totalling 507 Canadians enrolled in the papal army (whose soldiers were known as Papal Zouaves) to help defend Rome from the Italian troops who wanted to bring about Italian unification.

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