Geographical features | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Ellesmere Island

    Ellesmere Island, at 196,236 km2, is the third-largest island in Canada, the 10th-largest island in the world and the most northerly island in the Arctic Archipelago. It is located in Nunavut and is separated from Greenland by Kane Basin and Kennedy Channel, and from Devon Island to the south by Jones Sound. Cape Columbia (83°06´ 41" N lat) is Canada's most northerly point of land.

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  • Article

    Lake Erie

    Lake Erie, 25,700 km2 (including islands), of which 12,800 km2 lie in Canada, elevation 173.3 m; 388 km long, 92 km wide and 64 m deep. The shallowest of the five major Great Lakes (excluding Lake St. Clair), it receives most of its waters from Lake Huron via the Detroit River. Other major inflowing streams are the Maumee and Cuyahoga rivers in Ohio, and the Grand River in Ontario. The lake outflows through the Niagara River at Fort Erie, falling almost 100 m to Lake Ontario; more than 50 m of this drop occurs at Niagara Falls. It is also joined to Lake Ontario by the Welland Canal. (See also Largest Lakes in Canada.)

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  • Article


    This is a steep or vertical cliff which usually extends over a considerable distance. The most common type of escarpment occurs where more resistant strata form a cap rock over easily eroded rocks. As EROSION takes place, the lower rock erodes more rapidly so that the cliff remains very steep.

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  • Article


    An esker is a ridge (Gaelic eiscir, "ridge") of gravel and sand emplaced during glacial melt by the deposition of sediments from meltwater rivers flowing on the ice (channel fills) or beneath a glacier (tunnel fills).

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  • Article

    Husky Lakes

    Husky Lakes, 880 km2, lie along the southern edge of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, NWT, and drain into Liverpool Bay on the Beaufort Sea. Though commonly known as Husky Lakes, the name “Eskimo Lakes” still appears in certain maps and literature. (See also Eskimo.)

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  • Article

    Exploits River

    The Exploits River, 246 km long is the longest river on the Island of Newfoundland. Its tributaries, the Lloyds and Victoria rivers, rise in the southwest corner of the Island and flow northeast into Red Indian Lake (250 km2).

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  • Article

    Fairweather Mountain

    Fairweather Mountain, elevation 4663 m, is located at the southern end of the St Elias Range, on the BC-Alaska border, where a segment of the BC border juts southwest, nearly cutting off the Alaska Panhandle.

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  • Article

    Fishing Islands

    Fishing Islands, an archipelago of about 15 islets in Lake Huron (scattered in an area of 10 km2), lie off the west coast of the Bruce Peninsula in western Ontario between Chiefs Point and Pike Bay.

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  • Article


    In oceanographic terminology, fjords are estuaries, ie, semienclosed bodies of water in which seawater is measurably diluted by fresh water from land drainage.

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  • Article

    Fogo Island

    Fogo Island, Nfld, 254 km2, 15 km off Newfoundland's north-east coast, was named y do fogo, "fire island", by the Portuguese. The irregularly shaped island, heavily forested in the south, lies on shallow Fogo Shelf, which attracts salmon, cod and other species.

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  • Article


    Foothills, a region of rolling, undulating or hilly terrain lying between an area of plains and a mountain range.

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    A forest is an ecosystem characterized by a dense and extensive tree cover. It includes not only trees but also shrubs, vines, herbs, mosses, microorganisms, insects, and vertebrate animals that interact with each other and with their environment. This complex pattern of life is a system in delicate balance. Natural or human-caused alterations may trigger far-reaching and sometimes disastrous changes.

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  • Article

    Forest Regions

    A forest region is a major geographic belt or zone characterized by a broad uniformity both in physiography and in the composition of the dominant tree species. Canada can be divided into eight forest regions.

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  • Article

    Fosheim Peninsula

    The Fosheim Peninsula is located on the west coast of central Ellesmere Island, Nunavut.

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  • Article

    Foxe Basin

    Foxe Basin is bordered on its eastern and northern sides by the coast of Baffin Island and in the west by the Melville Peninsula.

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