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Amber Valley

The community of Amber Valley (originally Pine Creek), Alberta was founded in 1910 by African American families from Oklahoma, Texas and other nearby states. Seeking a life away from segregationist Jim Crow laws, racial hostility and violence in the US, they came in response to the Canadian government’s offer of free land in the western part of the country (seeDominion Lands Policy). Amber Valley is located about 170 kilometres north of Edmonton and 24 kilometres east of the town of Athabasca. It was one of several Alberta communities settled by Black people in the early 20th century (seeBlack Canadians), and the furthest north.

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Amherst

Amherst, NS, incorporated as a town in 1889, population 9717 (2011c), 9505 (2006c). The Town of Amherst is located near the border with New Brunswick, 15 km east of Sackville, NB.

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Amherstburg

Amherstburg, Ont, incorporated as a town in 1878, population 21 556 (2011c), 21 748 (2006c). The Town of Amherstburg is located on Detroit River near Lake Erie.

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Amos

Founded in 1914, Amos became in the mid-1920s the most important town in Abitibi and the county town of this newly settled region of Québec. It took its name from Alice Amos, the wife of Sir Lomer Gouin, premier of Québec.

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Amqui

Amqui's municipal history is more complex than it seems. In 1907, the village centre had split away from the parish municipality of Saint-Benoît-Joseph-Labre. It adopted the name Amqui in 1948 and was given town status in 1961.

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Amund Ringnes Island

Amund Ringnes Island, 5255 km2, located between Ellef Ringnes and Axel Heiberg islands in the Arctic Archipelago. It is flat (highest point about 610 m) and windswept; in winter its coasts are virtually indistinguishable from the surrounding ice.

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Ancaster

Ancaster, Ont, Urban Community within the city of Hamilton. Ancaster was incorporated as a town in 1974, but in 2001 it was merged into the new city of Hamilton

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Anderson River

Anderson River, 692 km long, originates in a group of lakes north of Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories and meanders north and west to empty into Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Beaufort Sea, just east of the Mackenzie Delta.

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Anjou

First part of the parish municipality of Saint-Léonard-de-Port-Maurice from 1886 to 1916, it was set up as a separate municipality in 1916 and incorporated as a city 50 years later.

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Annapolis Royal

Annapolis Royal, NS, incorporated as a town in 1893, population 481 (2011c), 444 (2006c). The Town of Annapolis Royal is located on the south side of the Annapolis River, about 10 km from its mouth near the western shore of Nova Scotia.

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Anne of Green Gables

Lucy Maud Montgomery’s first novel, Anne of Green Gables (1908), became an instant bestseller and has remained in print for more than a century, making the character of Anne Shirley a mythic icon of Canadian culture. The book has sold an estimated 50 million copies worldwide, been translated into at least 36 languages, as well as braille, and been adapted more than two dozen times in various mediums. A musical version first produced by the Charlottetown Festival in 1965 is the longest running annual musical theatre production in the world, while the award-winning 1985 CBC miniseries starring Megan Follows is the most-watched television program in Canadian history. Thousands of tourists visit Prince Edward Island each year to see the “sacred sites” related to the book, and the sale of Anne-related commodities such as souvenirs and dolls has come to constitute a cottage industry.

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Anthony Island

The overgrowth of lush vegetation has been cleared away from the remains of Ninstints's longhouses and totem poles, which pay silent homage to their creators.

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Antigonish

Antigonish, NS, incorporated as a town in 1889, population 4524 (2011c), 4236 (2006c). The Town of Antigonish is situated on a small plain just over a kilometre from Antigonish Harbour. Located midway between Halifax and Sydney.

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Anyox

Anyox, BC, was a town situated on Granby Bay, 60 km north of Prince Rupert. The Tsimshian word means "hidden water.

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Archaeological Sites

Archaeology is a historical science aimed at the discovery and understanding of past human behaviour through the study of material remains. Archaeologists draw the bulk of their information from physical artifacts left at locations where people lived, worked, visited and were buried long ago. The Canadian Encyclopedia features articles on many of the country’s archaeological sites, organized here by the provinces and territories in which they are found.

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Arctic Archipelago

Lying north of mainland Canada, the Arctic Archipelago consists of 94 major islands (greater than 130 km2) and 36,469 minor islands covering a total of 1.4 million km2. Apart from Greenland, which is almost entirely ice covered, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago forms the world's largest High Arctic land area.