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Battle of Vimy Ridge

The Battle of Vimy Ridge was fought during the First World War from 9 to 12 April 1917. It is Canada’s most celebrated military victory — an often mythologized symbol of the birth of Canadian national pride and awareness. The battle took place on the Western Front, in northern France. The four divisions of the Canadian Corps, fighting together for the first time, attacked the ridge from 9 to 12 April 1917 and captured it from the German army. It was the largest territorial advance of any Allied force to that point in the war — but it would mean little to the outcome of the conflict. More than 10,600 Canadians were killed and wounded in the assault. Today an iconic memorial atop the ridge honours the 11,285 Canadians killed in France throughout the war who have no known graves.

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Battleford

In 1905 a rail line finally reached the area, but the Canadian Northern Railway had chosen to bypass Battleford, an event that eventually led to the creation of the adjacent community of North Battleford.

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Bay d'Espoir

Bay d'Espoir is a fjordlike arm of Hermitage Bay on Newfoundland's south coast, entered between West Head and Dawson Point, 3 km northwest. More than 50 km from mouth to head, ice-free Bay d'Espoir (French for "hope") has sheer cliffs and steep-sided hills rising 180 to 300 m.

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Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine

Between about 15 000 and 10 000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated from the last ice age, parts of Georges Bank and other shallow areas were dry land; fragments of trees and mammoth teeth from this era are still found occasionally in fishing trawls.

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Beaconsfield

Beaconsfield is a reference to Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Count of Beaconsfield (1804-80), Queen Victoria's favourite prime minister.

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Beauceville

The history of the Beauceville area goes back to 1737 when the Seigneury Rigaud de Vaudreuil, or Saint-François-de-la-Nouvelle-Beauce, was granted to François-Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1703-79). The name Nouvelle-Beauce refers to the Beauce Region of France, famous for its wheat production.

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Beaufort Sea

The Beaufort Sea coast is low lying and subject to considerable scouring by ice and erosion by storm surges. The Canadian shelf and the Yukon/Alaskan shelf form the southern boundary of the Beaufort Sea, but they have significantly different widths and alignments.

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Beaumont

Beaumont, Alberta, incorporated as a village in 1973 and as a town in 1980, population 13 284 (2011c), 8961 (2006c). The Town of Beaumont is located five km south of Edmonton. The name Beaumont refers to the hill upon which the town is built.

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Beauport

In 1634, Robert Giffard received the seigneury of Beauport from the Compagnie des cent associés. In 1698, 444 French colonists settled just east of Rivière Beauport, attracted by the flour mill and agricultural land.

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Beausejour

After the railway was completed in 1887, and an influx of East Europeans and Scandinavians in the 1890s, the town consolidated its position as principal service and administrative centre for the surrounding agricultural district.

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Beaver Creek

Located just east of the Alaska-Yukon border, the settlement has a Canada Customs office, a landing strip, and service industries for travelers on the Alaska Highway. It is Canada's most westerly community.

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Beaverbrook Art Gallery

Major Atlantic Canadian artists represented in the permanent collection include Mary Pratt and Christopher Pratt, Molly Lamb Bobak and Bruno Bobak, Tom Forrestall, Alex Colville, Avery Shaw, Fred Ross, Jack Humphrey and Miller Brittain.

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Beaverlodge

Beaverlodge, AB, incorporated as a village in 1929 and as a town in 1956, population 2365 (2011c), 2264 (2006c).

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Bécancour

The city is named for René Robineau de Bécancour, who led an expedition against the Iroquois in 1696. The first French missionary contact with the local Abenaki occurred in 1669, and a permanent European settlement was established 3 years later.

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Bedford

Bedford, NS, Urban Community, is situated at the head of Bedford Basin, in Halifax Regional Municipality.

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Beechey Island

Beechey Island is on the north side of Lancaster Sound off the southwest corner of Devon Island at the entrance to Wellington Channel in the Arctic Archipelago.

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Behchokò

Behchokò, NT, established as community government in 2005, population 1926 (2011c), 1894 (2006c). First known as Rae-Edzo, Behchokò is located near the North Arm of Great Slave Lake, 106 km northwest of Yellowknife.

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Belcher Islands

Belcher Islands are located in southeastern Hudson Bay, 100 km west of Grande Rivière de la Baleine, Québec. The total land mass of about 13 000 km2 is composed of a group of long, narrow islands, lying northeast/southwest along a very extensive coastline.

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Belfry Theatre

The Belfry's history began in 1974, when University of Victoria graduate student Blair Shakel started making theatrical use of the unheated Springridge Chapel of the Emmanuel Baptist Church in the heart of the ailing Fernwood neighbourhood.

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Bell Island

Bell Island, 34 km2, the largest island in Conception Bay, off Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula, is a flat outcropping of Ordovician sandstone and shale interbedded with red hematite, an iron ore.