Nature & Geography | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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    American Eel

    The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is an elongated fish with a round body and long dorsal fin. It is one of about 35 eel species found in Canadian waters and the only freshwater eel species found in North America. In Canada, the American eel is treasured and valued as food by many Indigenous peoples, including the Mi’kmaq, Innu, Abenaki, Haudenosaunee and Cree. Common names for the American eel include Atlantic eel, common eel and freshwater eel. Indigenous peoples in Canada have their own names for eel. For example, the Mi’kmaq call the eel katew (singular) and kataq (plural) while the Cree refer to it as kinebikoinkosew. Eels are fished recreationally and commercially in Canada.

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    American Robin

    The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is the largest and best-known member of the thrush family in Canada.

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    American Toad

    The American toad (Anaxyrus americanus, formerly Bufo americanus) is a large toad native throughout most of Eastern North America. They are the most broadly distributed toad species on the continent. In Canada, American toads are found in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador. Typically brown, tan or grey, in the northern reaches of their Canadian range — which extends as far north as Labrador’s Arctic coast — American toads are brighter, with brick-red, white, yellow and black patterning.

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    Amphibians are members of a group of tetrapod (4-legged) vertebrate animals derived from fishes, and are the common ancestor to mammals and reptiles.

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    Anemone, or wind flower, perennial, herbaceous plant of genus Anemone, family Ranunculaceae.

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    Animal evolution has resulted in a vast number of adaptations for successful life under all sorts of conditions, so that there are now more kinds of animals than of all other living things combined.

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    Animal Agriculture

    Animal agriculture is the practice of breeding animals for the production of animal products and for recreational purposes.

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    Animal Breeding

    Domestication was performed through controlled mating and reproduction of captive animals which were selected and mated based on their behaviour and temperament.

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    Animal Disease

    The tissues and body fluids of animals are subject to the same types of abnormal structural and functional changes as are those of humans. Causes and circumstances may differ but the disease processes are very similar.

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    Animal Issues

    Anything involving animals that creates public interest and publicity, no matter how briefly it maintains that interest, may be considered an animal issue.

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    Animals in Winter

    Winter is the season that begins December 21 (winter solstice) and ends on March 21 (spring Equinox). In Canada cold and snow is associated with this season.

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    Annelids are mostly vermiform (worm-shaped), with an anterior (frontal) mouth preceded only by the prostomium, bearing sensory organs; the anus is posterior. Most have bristles (chaetae or setae), usually arranged in 4 groups on each segment.

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    Ant, common name for small, mostly ground-dwelling social insects of family Formicidae, order Hymenoptera.

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    Antimony (Sb) is a silvery-white, lustrous, crystalline solid. Uncharacteristically for metals, it is brittle and conducts heat and electricity poorly. Antimony melts at 630°C and boils at 1380°C. The mineral stibnite is the most important source of antimony.

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    Aphids are small, soft-bodied insects that suck plant sap. They belong to the order Hemiptera and the suborder Sternorrhyncha (along with whiteflies, scale insects and jumping plant lice). Aphids belong to the family Aphididae, although many species in the families Adelgidae and Phylloxeridae are also commonly called aphids. Over 5,000 species are known worldwide, over 800 of which are found in Canada. Aphids originated at least 250 million years ago, but most of their present diversity arose in the last 66 million years alongside flowering plants. Their great success as a group has made them familiar and prolific pests of gardens and agricultural crops.

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