Science & Technology | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article


    Illnesses that this infection can produce include a transient disease, developing within several months of exposure. It is characterized by rash, fever, malaise, joint pains and lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes).

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  • Article

    Air Profile Recorder

    Air Profile Recorder (APR), a narrow-beam recording radar altimeter designed to provide topographic profiles for use in the mapping of wilderness areas. The instrument employs a 3.2 cm pulse transmitter that feeds a parabolic radiator, mounted below the aircraft.

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  • Article

    Air Traffic Control

    Air Traffic Control (ATC) is the service provided to pilots to assist them in operating their aircraft in a safe, orderly and efficient manner.

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  • Article

    Alberta Hilda Dinosaur Mega-Bonebed

    The site is important because it confirms that Centrosaurus was a herding dinosaur, and documents that the herds were larger than previously thought, numbering well into the thousands.

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  • Article

    Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority

    AOSTRA was merged into the Provincial Ministry of Energy's Oil Sands and Research Division in 1994. The corporation was dissolved in 2000 and its assets and liabilities were vested in the Alberta Science and Research Authority.

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  • Article

    Alberta Research Council

    The Alberta Research Council, the oldest provincial research organization, was established by order-in-council as the Scientific and Industrial Research Council of Alberta in 1921. Instrumental in founding the organization were J.L. COTÉ, provincial secretary, and H.M.

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  • Article

    Albion Mines Railway

    Albion Mines Railway, Pictou County, NS, was the second steam railway in Canada and the first to use a standard gauge and split-switch movable rail.

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  • Article


    The alarmingly increasing frequency of allergies, affecting over 20% of the population in developed countries, has led to the establishment of a new branch of medicine, that of allergology, which is conceptually closely related to immunology.

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  • Article

    Aluminum in Canada

    Aluminum is a lightweight, strong and flexible metal that resists corrosion and is 100 per cent recyclable. It is a common material in vehicles, buildings, consumer goods, packaging, power transmission and  electronics. Canada’s aluminum industry began at the turn of the 20th century and grew quickly during both World Wars. In 2022, Canada produced approximately 3.0 million tonnes of primary aluminum, making it the world's fourth largest primary aluminum producer. The country nevertheless accounts for 4.4 per cent of global production. Aside from one smelter in Kitimat, British Columbia, all Canadian plants are in the province of Quebec. Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

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  • Macleans

    Alzheimer's Battle

    At first, the effects are almost imperceptible: a man or woman cannot find keys or forgets the name of a loved one. As Alzheimer's disease continues to destroy nerve cells in the brain, the incidents become more frequent - and more troubling.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on March 13, 2000

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  • Macleans

    Alzheimer's Gene Found

    Frances Hodge was only 47 when Alzheimer's disease began to destroy her brain. The first symptoms appeared in 1975, when her memory began to fail. By the early 1980s, she could no longer talk, and in 1986 she entered a nursing home, where she remained until her death four months ago.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on July 10, 1995

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  • Article

    Anorexia Nervosa

    Anorexia nervosa, misnamed "anorexia" ("loss of appetite"), is a disease that has been on medical records since 1689.

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  • Article

    Anthropology in Canada

    Anthropology is the comparative study of past and contemporary cultures, focusing on the ways of life and customs of people around the world. Subdisciplines have developed within anthropology, owing to the amount of information collected and the wide variety of methods and techniques used in research. The main branches are physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, ethnology (which is also called social or cultural anthropology) and applied anthropology. In Canada, early anthropologists included missionaries, explorers and traders who documented the lives of the Indigenous people they encountered. Later, the Geological Survey of Canada played a significant role in the development of Canadian anthropology.

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  • Article

    Antibiotic Resistance in Canada

    Antibiotic (or antimicrobial) resistance developed with the wide distribution of antibiotic medications in the 20th century. Resistance occurs when the medication is no longer capable of killing or preventing the reproduction of bacteria. A major global health challenge, antibiotic resistance makes treating diseases more difficult and expensive, and it results in fewer antibiotics that are effective in managing infectious diseases. Rates of antibiotic-resistant infections are rising in Canada. In hospital settings, infections that resist multiple drugs are also becoming more common. In 2019, an expert panel of the Council of Canadian Academies estimated that resistant infections contributed to more than 14,000 deaths in Canada the previous year. Canadian health agencies, medical professionals and industries are active in multiple efforts to combat this problem. 

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  • Article


    Antimony (Sb) is a silvery-white, lustrous, crystalline solid. Uncharacteristically for metals, it is brittle and conducts heat and electricity poorly. Antimony melts at 630°C and boils at 1380°C. The mineral stibnite is the most important source of antimony.

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