Sports & Recreation | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article


    The sport of diving can be traced back to 400 BC through pictures on Egyptian and Roman vases. Plain diving was practised from cliffs to the oceans during the 8th to 10th centuries by Vikings in Sweden and later in the 1770s by Indians in Acapulco, Mexico.

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  • Article


    Dogsledding is a method of winter travel developed by northern Indigenous peoples. Early European explorers and trappers adopted it as the most efficient way to haul goods across snow-covered terrain.

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  • Article

    Edmonton Elks

    The Edmonton Elks (formerly the Edmonton Football Team, or EE Football Team, and the Edmonton Eskimos) is a community-owned football team that plays in the West Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL). In the CFL’s modern era (post-Second World War), the team has won the second-most Grey Cup championships (14). This included three victories in a row from 1954 to 1956 and an unprecedented five straight championships from 1978 to 1982. The club also holds the North American professional sports record for reaching the playoffs in 34 consecutive seasons (1972–2005). Notable alumni include former Alberta premiers Peter Lougheed and Don Getty, former lieutenant-governor of Alberta Norman Kwong, former Edmonton mayor Bill Smith, and former NFL star Warren Moon.

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  • Article

    Edmonton Grads

    The Edmonton Grads (1915–40) was a women’s championship basketball team coached by Percy Page. During their 25 years as a team, the Grads won an astounding 95 per cent of their matches. The Grads were national and world champions, often defeating their opponents by lopsided scores. The team won the Underwood International Trophy (USA–Canada) for 17 years straight (1923 to 1940), and was undefeated in 24 matches held in conjunction with the Olympic Summer Games in 1924, 1928 and 1936. The Grads were named to Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 2017.

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  • Article

    Edmonton Mercurys

    The Edmonton Mercurys, a team consisting of amateur hockey players, was the last Canadian hockey team to win an Olympic gold medal until 2002. The 1952 win at Oslo was the fifth gold medal in six Winter Olympics to that point for Canada.

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  • Article

    Edmonton Oilers

    The Edmonton Oilers are a hockey team in the National Hockey League (NHL) and are based in Edmonton, Alberta. The Oilers have won five Stanley Cup championships.

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  • Macleans

    Expos Bought by Loria

    An ardent baseball fan since the 1950s and a minority owner of the Montreal Expos, Mark Routtenberg concedes that even his passion for the Grand Old Game waned during the past year.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on December 13, 1999

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  • Macleans

    Farewell to Montreal Forum

    This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on March 18, 1996. Partner content is not updated. Yvon Lambert cherishes the memory of it still, the magic moment when he briefly wore the crown. Like so many Montreal fables, it is a story about hockey. And like most hockey stories in the city, it happened at the Forum, on a warm evening in May 17 years ago.

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  • Article

    Federation Cup

    The women's equivalent of the DAVIS CUP men's team tennis competition can be traced back to 1919 when US tennis star Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman presented the idea of an international team competition for women.

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  • Article


    Fencing is a sport that involves duelling with a sword according to established rules.

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  • Article

    Field Hockey

    In Canada, field hockey is generally restricted to spring, summer and early autumn seasons, except in southwestern BC, where it can be played year-round. It is principally a girls' sport in schools, but is played by both men and women in adult leagues across the country.

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  • Article

    Figure Skating

    Figure skating is a sport that tests style and technical skill. The most important championships are the Olympic Games and the World, European and Four Continents Championships. The Grand Prix Series consists of six senior international events, including Skate Canada (first staged in 1973). Many Canadian figure skaters have achieved distinction at the international level by winning championships and medals; several have entered the record books by being the first to successfully perform challenging new jumps.

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  • Article

    Fishing, Ice

    Ice provides a seasonal platform for fishing by netting, spearing and angling. Net, spear and hook were in use winter and summer in northern Europe and North America long before the dawn of history.

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  • Article


    The Canada Fitness Survey (1981 with a longitudinal follow-up in 1989), involved nearly 12 000 households in 80 urban and rural communities across Canada. Approximately 16 000 people, aged 7 to 69 years, participated in a fitness test, and 22 000 completed a questionnaire.

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  • Editorial

    Fog Bowl: The 1962 Grey Cup

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated. The Grey Cup was donated by Albert Henry George Grey, yet another of those governors general who have left their monikers on our sporting life.

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