History | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Workers Unity League

    Workers Unity League the Workers Unity League (WUL) is a national trade union federation that was formed in 1929 on the initiative of the Communist Party Of Canada in line with the decision of the Communist International (Comintern) in 1928 that communists break with their previous policy of working inside existing labour parties and labour unions to push for more militant stances. The new policy stressed the need for revolutionary organizations independent of the existing...

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  • Article

    Working-Class History

    Working-class history is the story of the changing conditions and actions of all working people. Most adult Canadians today earn their living in the form of wages and salaries and thus share the conditions of dependent employment associated with the definition of "working class."

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  • Article

    Working Class History: Québec

    ​Most adult Canadians earn their living in the form of wages and salaries and are therefore associated with the definition of "working class." In Québec, working people and unions have played an essential role in the province's development.

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  • Article

    Working Class History: English Canada

    ​Most adult Canadians earn their living in the form of wages and salaries and are therefore associated with the definition of "working class." Less than a third of employed Canadians typically belong to unions. Unionized or not, the struggles and triumphs of Canadian workers are an essential part of the country's development.

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  • Article

    XY Company

     XY Company (New North West Co), named after the marks used to distinguish its bales of goods from those of the NORTH WEST COMPANY, was a product of conflicts between NWC agents (led by Simon MCTAVISH) and NWC winterers, following the company's reorganization in 1795.

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  • Article

    York Boat

    The York boat, named for the Hudson’s Bay Company’s York Factory, was one of three types of inland boats (the others being scows and sturgeon-heads) used by the HBC in the fur trade. It was the company’s most suitable boat for lake travel, although it also plied rivers. For about a century beginning the 1820s, this freight-carrying boat was the main mode of transportation between York Factory on Hudson Bay and inland trading posts.

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  • Article

    York Factory

    York Factory, also known as York Fort, Fort Bourbon by the French, and Kischewaskaheegan by some Indigenous people, was a trading post on the Hayes River near its outlet to Hudson Bay, in what is now Manitoba. During its life, it served as a post and later as a major administrative centre in the Hudson’s Bay Company’s fur trade network. It also bore witness to the largest naval battle to take place in Arctic Canada, the Battle of Hudson Bay in 1697.

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  • Article

    You'll Get Used to It

    'You'll Get Used to It'. World War II song in quick-march tempo, written in 1940 by Freddie Grant about life in a camp for German and Austrian nationals (many of whom were refugees) in England during the hostilities.

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  • Article

    Ypres: Inexperienced Canadians Hold the Line

    "Here was the world's worst wound." — Siegfried Sassoon, "On Passing the New Menin Gate" (1928) In early October 1914 the British Expeditionary Force left its positions on the Aisne River in France, moved to the left of the Allied line, and joined the Race to the Sea. While advancing northeastward, into the Belgian province of West Flanders, they collided with strong German forces advancing westward toward the Channel coast. The British and their French...

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  • Article

    Yukon and Confederation

    Yukon entered Confederation in 1898, after a gold rush boom led Canada to create a second northern territory out of the Northwest Territories (NWT).

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  • Article

    Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre

    (courtesy Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre).In the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre (courtesy Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre).PreviousNext Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre The newly opened (1997) Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre in Whitehorse, Yukon, takes visitors back some 24 000 years to Beringia, the land bridge that joined Asia and North America during the last, Wisconsinan Ice Age (see Glaciation). The centre includes models, skeletal remains and dioramas of ice-age megafauna, including woolly mammoths, giant beaver and the steppe...

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  • Macleans

    Yukon Celebrates Gold Rush Centenary

    Madeleine Gould can often be seen on the streets of Dawson sporting a T-shirt that reads: "The Yukon: where men are men and women are pioneers."This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on August 19, 1996

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  • Article

    Yukon Field Force

    Yukon Field Force (1898-1900), composed of 203 officers and men drawn from all 3 branches (cavalry, artillery and infantry) of the Permanent Force of the Canadian Militia.

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  • Article


     In Canada most zooarchaeologists study teeth, bone and marine shells, because these materials are commonly preserved on archaeological sites. Preservation of specimens depends on what happened to them before burial, the rate at which they were buried, and the burial environment.

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  • Article


    Between February 1868 and September 1870, 7 contingents totalling 507 Canadians enrolled in the papal army (whose soldiers were known as Papal Zouaves) to help defend Rome from the Italian troops who wanted to bring about Italian unification.

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