History | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Macleans

    Charlottetown Bombing

    Even for a symbolic act of violence it was a particularly cynical target - the tiny, perfect Prince Edward Island legislature in Charlottetown where the Fathers of Confederation once thrashed out the terms for the formation of Canada.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on May 1, 1995

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Charlottetown Bombing
  • Article

    Charlottetown Conference

    The Charlottetown Conference set Confederation in motion. It was held from 1–9 September 1864 in Charlottetown, with additional meetings the following week in Halifax, Saint John and Fredericton. The conference was organized by delegates from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to discuss the union of their three provinces. They were persuaded by a contingent from the Province of Canada, who were not originally on the guest list, to work toward the union of all the British North American colonies. The Charlottetown Conference was followed by the Quebec Conference (10–27 October 1864) and the London Conference (December 1866–March 1867). They culminated in Confederation on 1 July 1867.

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  • Article

    Charlottetown Conference (Plain-Language Summary)

    The Charlottetown Conference was a first step toward Confederation. It was held 1–9 September 1864 in Charlottetown. Follow-up meetings were held the following week in Halifax, Saint John and Fredericton. It was all organized by leaders from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The purpose was to discuss the union of their three colonies. A group from the Province of Canada convinced them to unite all the British North American colonies. The meeting was followed by the Quebec Conference (10–27 October 1864) and the London Conference (December 1886–March 1867). They all led to Confederation on 1 July 1867. This article is a plain-language summary of the Charlottetown Conference. If you would like to read about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry: Charlottetown Conference.

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  • Article

    Château Clique

     Château Clique, nickname given to the small group of officials, usually members of the anglophone merchant community, including John MOLSON and James MCGILL, who dominated the executive and legislative councils, the judiciary and senior bureaucratic positions of LOWER CANADA until the 1830s.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/ae171a3d-7542-4745-8013-b08068bf08e5.jpg Château Clique
  • Article

    Château Frontenac

    Built by Canadian Pacific beginning in 1892, and designed by architect Bruce Price, the Château Frontenac is an excellent example of château-style hotels developed by railway companies in Canada.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/7d924fcf-8eec-4819-8503-5b8f85bbd7cb.jpg Château Frontenac
  • Article

    Chateau Lake Louise

    Chateau Lake Louise is a world-renowned mountain resort and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Banff National Park, Alberta. Known as the “Diamond in the Wilderness,” the chateau was built beginning in the late 1800s, and was developed as part of the CPR’s network of hotels. It shares a lineage with the Banff Springs Hotel, Le Chateau Frontenac in Québec City and the Empress Hotel in Victoria. Considering its remote location and its eventual scale, the Chateau Lake Louise marked an important point in the development of the Canadian West.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/fd1b73ac-b324-4388-a19b-a3de2c9da995.jpg Chateau Lake Louise
  • Article

    Chesapeake Affair 1807

    Wars often have many causes. Some are long-standing problems between nations, while others are dangerous sparks that inflame attitudes and push nations to a call to arms.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Chesapeake Affair 1807
  • Article

    Chesapeake Affair 1863

    On 7 December 1863, during the American Civil War, 16 Confederates seized American coastal steamer Chesapeake off Cape Cod and diverted it to Saint John, NB.

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  • Article

    Chinese Head Tax in Canada

    The Chinese head tax was enacted to restrict immigration after Chinese labour was no longer needed to build the Canadian Pacific Railway. Between 1885 and 1923, Chinese immigrants had to pay a head tax to enter Canada. The tax was levied under the Chinese Immigration Act (1885). It was the first legislation in Canadian history to exclude immigration on the basis of ethnic background. With few exceptions, Chinese people had to pay at least $50 to come to Canada. The tax was later raised to $100, then to $500. During the 38 years the tax was in effect, around 82,000 Chinese immigrants paid nearly $23 million in tax. The head tax was removed with the passing of the Chinese Immigration Act in 1923. Also known as the Chinese Exclusion Act, it banned all Chinese immigrants until its repeal in 1947. In 2006, the federal government apologized for the head tax and its other racist immigration policies targeting Chinese people. This is the full-length entry about the Chinese Head Tax. For a plain-language summary, please see Chinese Head Tax in Canada (Plain-Language Summary).

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  • Article

    Chinese Immigration Act

    The Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, known also as the Chinese Exclusion Act, banned the entry of virtually all Chinese immigrants for 24 years. Although migration into Canada from most countries was controlled or restricted in some way, only Chinese people were singled out completely from entering on the basis of race. The four exceptions to the exclusion were students, merchants (excluding laundry, restaurant and retail operators), diplomats and Canadian-born Chinese returning from education in China. The limit on absence from Canada was two years, and the consequence for not returning on time was being barred re-entry. Additionally, every person of Chinese descent, whether Canadian-born or naturalized, was required to register for an identity card within 12 months. The penalty for noncompliance was imprisonment or a fine of up to $500. Though the Act was repealed in 1947, immigration restrictions on the basis of race and national origin were not fully scrubbed until 1967.

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  • Article

    Christmas in Canada

    Christmas is celebrated in various ways in contemporary Canada. In particular, it draws form the French, British and American traditions. Since the beginning of the 20th century, it had become the biggest annual celebration and had begun to take on the form that we recognize today.

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  • Editorial

    The First Christmas Tree in North America

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/b7110cb5-bfa8-4f96-803e-418fb5b41091.jpg The First Christmas Tree in North America
  • Article

    Clement Ligoure

    Clement Courtenay Ligoure, physician (born 13 October 1887 in Trinidad; died 23 May 1922 Port of Spain, Trinidad). Dr. Ligoure was Halifax’s first Black doctor and an unsung hero of the Halifax Explosion, as he treated hundreds of patients free of charge in his home medical office. Dr. Ligoure was also instrumental in the formation of the No. 2 Construction Battalion, Canada’s first and only all-Black battalion (see Black Canadians; Caribbean Canadians).

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  • Article

    Clergy Reserves

     Clergy Reserves, one-seventh of the public lands of Upper and Lower Canada, reserved by the 1791 Constitutional Act for the maintenance of a "Protestant clergy," a phrase intended to apply to the Church of England alone.

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  • Article

    Clocks and Watches

    The manufacture of clocks and watches in Canada may have begun as early as 1700; however, practising watch and clockmakers through the 18th and much of the 19th centuries did not make the movements.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Clocks and Watches