Military | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Andrew Mynarski

    Andrew Charles Mynarski, Royal Canadian Air Force pilot officer, Victoria Cross recipient (born 14 October 1916 in Winnipeg, MB; died 13 June 1944 in Cambrai, France). Mynarksi served as a gunner on bomber aircraft during the Second World War. While on a mission on 12 June 1944, his plane was attacked and on fire when, rather than jumping to safety, he ran through flames to try to rescue his fellow crewmember who was trapped in the rear gun turret. Unable to extricate his friend, Mynarski parachuted safely to the ground but later died due to severe burns. His bravery earned him many posthumous commendations, including the Victoria Cross.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/186f9410-2e14-46b5-bf86-e6b04c11dd86.jpg Andrew Mynarski
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    Archie MacNaughton

    John Archibald (Archie) MacNaughton, soldier, farmer (born 7 October 1896 in Black River Bridge, NB; died 6 June 1944 in Normandy, France). Archie MacNaughton fought in both the First World War and Second World War. MacNaughton rose to the rank of major and was a well-respected officer with the North Shore New Brunswick Regiment. When he was 47 years old, MacNaughton led North Shore’s “A” Company into Normandy on D-Day. He was killed in action while pushing inland from Juno Beach.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/new_article_images/ArchieMacNaughton/IMG_2839.JPG Archie MacNaughton
  • Article

    Arms and the Men of the War of 1812

    The British land forces that defended British North America during the War of 1812 were drawn from a number of organizations. The British "army" of the time consisted of the infantry, cavalry, the Royal Waggon Train and the Royal Sappers and Miners.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Arms and the Men of the War of 1812
  • Article

    Editorial: Canadian Art and the Great War

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated. Canadian painting in the 19th century tended towards the pastoral. It depicted idyllic scenes of rural life and represented the country as a wondrous Eden. Canadian painter Homer Watson, under the influence of such American masters as Frederic Edwin Church and Albert Bierstadt, created images that are serene and suffused with golden light. In On the Mohawk River (1878), for instance, a lazy river ambles between tall, overhanging trees; in the background is a light-struck mountain. In Watson’s world, nature is peaceful, unthreatening and perhaps even sacred.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/62472ac0-198a-4d62-b24b-61a481415215.jpg Editorial: Canadian Art and the Great War
  • Article

    Arthur Brooke

    Arthur Brooke, career soldier (b at Ireland 1772; d at London 1843). Colonel Arthur Brooke is best remembered as one of the two key British commanders during the Battle of North Point (part of the Battle of Baltimore) in the War of 1812.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Arthur Brooke
  • Article

    Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson, VC

    Arthur Herbert Lindsay “Tappy” Richardson, VC, policeman, soldier, war hero, labourer (born 23 September 1872 in Southport, England; died 15 December 1932 in Liverpool, England). Richardson served in the North-West Mounted Police from 1894 to 1907 but took leave in 1900 to fight in the South African War. He was the first member of a Canadian unit to receive the Victoria Cross.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/BoerWar/arthur-richardson.png Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson, VC
  • Article

    Arthur Roy Brown

    Arthur Roy Brown, fighter pilot and ace, businessman, civil aviation pioneer (born 23 December 1893 in Carleton Place, Ontario; died 9 March 1944 in Stouffville, Ontario). Brown is credited with killing Germany’s top First World War ace, Manfred von Richthofen, the famed “Red Baron.” Richthofen may, however, have been shot down by two Australian army machine-gunners.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/dd4b0848-4236-4de3-9d3a-faff42f2bcd4.jpg Arthur Roy Brown
  • Article

    Bertha Clark-Jones

    Bertha Clark-Jones (née Houle), OC, Cree-Métis advocate for the rights of Indigenous women and children (born 6 November 1922 in Clear Hills, AB; died 21 October 2014 in Bonnyville, AB). A veteran of the Second World War, Clark-Jones joined the Aboriginal Veterans Society and advocated for the fair treatment of Indigenous ex-service people. She was co-founder and first president of the Native Women’s Association of Canada. Clark-Jones devoted her life to seeking equality and greater power for women in Canada.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/home-page-images/Bertha-clark-jones.jpg Bertha Clark-Jones
  • Article

    Bertram Hoffmeister

    Major General Bertram (Bert) Meryl Hoffmeister, OC, CB, CBE, DSO & Two Bars, ED, Canadian Army officer, businessman (born 15 May 1907 in Vancouver, BC; died 4 December 1999 in Vancouver, BC). During the Second World War, Hoffmeister commanded the Seaforth Highlanders in Sicily, the 2nd Infantry Brigade at Ortona (1943) and the 5th Canadian Armoured Division, which distinguished itself under his courageous leadership in Italy and later in North-West Europe. Military historian Jack Granatstein has referred to Major General Hoffmeister as one of “the best Canadian fighting generals of the [Second world] war.”When the war ended, Hoffmeister resumed his career in the BC forest industry and was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1982.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/The-Memory-Project/image/7986_original.jpg Bertram Hoffmeister
  • Article

    Black Canadians and Conscription in the First World War

    In 1917, the Canadian government passed the Military Service Act, which made all male citizens (aged 20 to 45) subject to conscription. As the First World War (1914–18) dragged on, the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) desperately needed reinforcements, as the number of volunteers had nearly dried up. Earlier in the war, Black volunteers had faced resistance and opposition in their efforts to enlist. However, Black Canadians were not exempt from conscription and at least 350 were drafted into the CEF. Those who served overseas worked primarily with the Canadian Forestry Corps, although some also served on the frontlines.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/ImagefromBooksofRemembrance-H.jpg Black Canadians and Conscription in the First World War
  • Article

    Black History in Canada until 1900

    Black people have lived in Canada since the beginnings of transatlantic settlement. Although historically very few arrived directly from their ancestral homeland in Africa, the term "African Canadian" is used to identify all descendants of Africa regardless of their place of birth. “Black Canadian” is also used as a more general term. The earliest arrivals were enslaved people brought from New England or the West Indies. Between 1763 and 1900, most Black migrants to Canada were fleeing enslavement in the US. (See also Black Enslavement in Canada.) See also Black History in Canada: 1900–1960 and Black History in Canada: 1960 to Present.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/917b145c-c991-4838-92ef-ab33000e1bdc.jpg Black History in Canada until 1900
  • Article

    Black Pioneers of the American Revolution

    The Black Pioneers was a provincial (i.e., locally recruited) unit of the British army during the American Revolutionary War. It was the only Black unit on the provincial establishment. Most members of the company were formerly enslaved persons who had fled their Patriot (rebel) owners in response to British promises of freedom. Although some Black soldiers fought in combat during the war, the Pioneers provided construction and engineering support to the British army. After the war, they were among thousands of Black Loyalists who were transported to Nova Scotia.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/be13527b-b76d-408a-afca-30acbd4f7bfc.png Black Pioneers of the American Revolution
  • Article

    Black Volunteers in the Canadian Expeditionary Force

    During the First World War, up to 1,300 Black men volunteered for service in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). While the men of No. 2 Construction Battalion are the best-known example of Black participation in the war, another 300 to 500 enlisted in other units of the CEF. Of these, about 100 served on the front lines. Black soldiers participated in all major battles of the CEF, from its arrival in France until the Armistice. (See also Black Canadians and Conscription in the First World War.)

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/d2114b98-ef0d-4e98-aa49-892b095d77cc.jpg Black Volunteers in the Canadian Expeditionary Force
  • Article

    George Morton and the Fight to Fight: Black Volunteers in the First World War

    Archivist Barbara M. Wilson explores the significance of a letter sent to Sir Sam Hughes by George Morton, a letter carrier, barber and civil rights advocate from Hamilton, Ontario. In his letter, dated 7 September 1915, Morton asked the minister of militia and defence why members of the Black community were being turned away when trying to enlist for service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War. (See also Black Volunteers in the Canadian Expeditionary Force.)

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/1110b60d-adfe-4989-b17d-45c0d12d2438.jpg George Morton and the Fight to Fight: Black Volunteers in the First World War
  • Article

    Bonnie Henry

    Bonnie Henry, provincial health officer of British Columbia (2018 to present), epidemiologist, physician (born 1965 in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island). Dr. Bonnie Henry is best known for leading British Columbia’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. She has also worked to eradicate polio and to contain Ebola and SARS. Henry is a family care physician and a specialist in preventative medicine. She is the first woman to serve as BC’s provincial health officer. Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/new_article_images/BonnieHenry/Bonnie_Henry.jpg Bonnie Henry